Chapter 1 The Long Process of Urbanization

Chapter 1 The Long Process of Urbanization


A city is a child and symbol of human civilization. Cities have always been the cradle of human civilizations, both material and spiritual. As important icons of the Chinese civilization, cities have played prominent roles in its developmental process. The earliest Chinese city came into being more than 4,000 years ago. Thereafter, in the long-lasting agrarian society, China’s urban development ranked among the frontrunners of the world, as a dazzling pearl of the civilized world of that era. After the Song Dynasty (960-1279), a reverse turn in urban development took place. Other than rushing into big cities, the population began to flow back into rural areas. As large cities went down in scale, new smaller cities and towns began to emerge in bulk in the south. After the five ports (Guangzhou, Xiamen, Fuzhou, Ningbo and Shanghai) were open for trade, modern cities began to develop along China’s rivers and sea coasts, and cities began their metamorphosis from traditional forms into modern forms. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), under the planned economy, urban development took a sluggish and tortuous path. Only after the policy of reform and opening up was initiated did the country’s urbanization process pick up the pace again. In today’s China, urban development is faced with numerous bottleneck problems. Chapter content includes: Prosperity and Civilization in Ancient Chinese Cities, The Rise of Modern Industrial and Commercial Cities, The Tortuous Path of the PRC’s Urbanization Drive, Acceleration of the Urbanization Process in Post-reform China, Prospects of China’s Urbanization.

Chapter One by QI Xiaolin

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Product details

Book title: China’s Urbanization Migration by the Millions
Series name: China Urbanisation Studies Series Vol.1
Series editors: LI Qiang and LI Tie; Managing editor: LIU Jiayan
Author: XIE Chuntao
Numbers of page: 266
Colour: Black, white, and colour
Publisher: London: Global Century Press; Beijing: New World Press
Publishing date: 2016
Language: English and Chinese
Product Dimensions: 17 x 24 cm
ISBN 978-1-910334-20-1 (English Paperback); ISBN 978-1-910334-21-8 (Chinese paperback)
Price: English £29.99; Chinese £29.99; Single chapter £10.00; Sample £0.00

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About the editor
China’s Urbanization: Migration by the Millions is edited by Xie Chuntao, a native of Linshu County, Shandong Province, and a professor and director of the CPC History Teaching and Research Department at the Party School of the Central Committee of CPC. He took charge of the school’s press sector for some time before switching back to teaching. He is author of many books, most notably: Turmoil of the Great Leap Forward, A Brief History of the 1959 Mount Lushan Meeting, A History of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics, China in Transition: from 1976 to 1982, An Illustrated History of the 50 Years of the PRC, and China Through the Ages – from Confucius to Deng (English edition), Why and How the CPC Works in China (Chinese and English editions), Governing China: How the CPC Works (Chinese and English editions), Learn from Mao Zedong, Introduction to the Communist Party of China, and Challenges for China: How the CPC Makes Progress (Chinese and English editions), Campaigns Against Corruption: How the CPC Fights.

China Urbanization Studies Series 

This is the first book in the China Urbanization Studies series, edited jointly by Professor LI Qiang, Dean of School of Social Sciences at Tsinghua University; President of Chinese Sociological Association, China; and Mr LI Tie, Director General of the China Center for Urban Development (CCUD),National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) China with Managing Editor: LIU Jiayan, Associate Professor in School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, China. It is published by Global Century Press from 2016.

More info

This book was first published by New World Press in 2014, and republished jointly by New World Press and Global Century Press in 2016. This joint publication is the first volume in the ‘China Urbanization Studies’ series. We have retained the original typesetting, but we have added DOI numbers for the book, Series Editors’ Prefaces and all chapters, as well as a section of dual language additions from Global Century Press in English and Chinese.

The book was planned, outlined and edited by Xie Chuntao. The writing was done by a multitude of writers: Chapter One by QI Xiaolin, Chapters Two & Three by LI Qinggang, Chapter Four & Six by SHEN Chuanliang, Chapter Five by GAO Qiang and Chapter Seven by HAN Xiaoqing.


General preface one / LI Qiang
General preface two / LI Tie
Preface one / LI Tie
Preface two
Chapter 1: The Long Process of Urbanization
1.1 Prosperity and Civilization in Ancient Chinese Cities
1.2 The Rise of Modern Industrial and Commercial Cities
1.3 The Tortuous Path of the PRC’s Urbanization Drive
1.4 Acceleration of the Urbanization Process in Post-reform China
1.5 Prospects of China’s Urbanization
Chapter 2: Two Builders of Modernized Cities
2.1 Sweat and Contribution
2.2 Bewilderment and Growth
2.3 Change and Vision
Chapter 3: Changes in the Hukou System
3.1 Barriers That Need to Be Broken Through
3.2 No Return
3.3 Strengthening of Top-level Design
Chapter 4: Urbanization of Farmers
4.1 Surging Tides of Migrant Workers
4.2 The Dream of Settling Down in the City
4.3 Improving the Quality of Life for Migrant Workers
Chapter 5: Distribution of Proceeds from Value-added Land
5.1 Termination of the “Land for Development” Model
5.2 Land Empowerment–Seeking a Breakthrough in the Exploration Process
5.3 Comprehensive Land Management–from Regionalized to Centralized Approach
5.4 Distribution of the Proceeds of Value-added Land–Sharing the Benefits of Prosperity Through Competition
5.5 Land Reform and Urbanization
Chapter 6: Leaving Home for Jobs Close to Home
6.1 The High Cost of Home Leaving
6.2 Recurrence of Leaving Home for Jobs Close to Home
6.3 Local Urbanization
Chapter 7: Integration of Urban and Rural Development
7.1 Let Farming Become a Decent Career
7.2 Choice Let the Farmers’ Property Increase in Value
7.3 Equal Pay for Equal Work
7.4 Realize People-oriented Urbanization
Dual language information from Global Century Press
1 About the book
1.1 Abstract and about the author
1.2 Table of contents
1.3 About this book series and other books in this series
2 More from Global China Press
2.1 GCP style rules for rendering Chinese-English dual languages
2.2 GCP style rules for Chinese names
2.3 Examples of GCP book series
2.4 Journals and periodicals